For writings by which the antilynching motion documented and systematically analyzed American mob violence, see Ida B. Wells, Southern Horrors and Other Writings:…
… The Anti-lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900, ed. Jacqueline Jones Royster (Boston, 1997); nationwide Association for the development of Colored People, Thirty several years of Lynching in the usa, 1889–1918 (1919; nyc, 1969); Arthur F. Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill, 1933); and Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (1929; Notre Dame, 2001). Ida B. Wells along with her campaign against lynching have spawned respected scholarship in modern times. See, for instance, Paula J. Giddings, Ida: A Sword among Lions; Ida B. Wells while the Campaign against Lynching (nyc, 2009); James western Davidson, “They Say”: Ida B. Wells as well as the Reconstruction of Race (nyc, 2008); Patricia A. Schechter, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and United states Reform, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill, 2000); and Angela D. Sims, Ethical problems of Lynching: Ida B. Wells’s Interrogation of United states Terror (nyc, 2010). For early twentieth-century science that is social on lynching, see James Elbert Cutler, Lynch Law: a study to the reputation for Lynching in the usa (1905; ny, 1969); Paul Walton Ebony, “Lynchings in Iowa, ” Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 10 (April 1912), 187–99; Paul Walton Ebony, “Attempted Lynchings in Iowa, ” Annals of Iowa, 11 (Jan. 1914), 260–85; Genevieve Yost, “History of Lynchings in Kansas, ” Kansas Historical Quarterly, 2 (might 1933), 182–219; John Dollard, Caste and Class in a Southern Town ( brand New Haven, 1938); and Frank Shay, Judge Lynch: their First 100 years (ny, 1938). Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology associated with United states Frontier, 1600–1860 (Middletown, 1973); Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: historic Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism (ny, 1975); H. John Rosenbaum and Peter C. Sederberg, Vigilante Politics (Philadelphia, 1976). C. Vann Woodward, Origins for the brand brand New Southern, 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge, 1951). From the neglect of lynching in southern historic scholarship until the belated 20th century as well as on the awakening of general general public desire for mob physical physical violence in current years, see W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “Conclusion: Reflections on Lynching Scholarship, ” in Lynching Reconsidered: New Perspectives within the learn of Mob Violence, ed. William D. Carrigan (ny, 2008), 205–18, esp. 213.
Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames plus the ladies’ Campaign against Lynching (1979; ny, 1993), xx–xxi. See additionally Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: ladies, Rape, and Racial Violence, ” in Powers of want: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Barr Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (ny, 1983), 328–49. Robert L. Zangrando, The naacp Crusade against Lynching, 1909–1950 (Philadelphia, 1980), 18. James R. McGovern, Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge, 1982); Howard Smead, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker (ny, 1986). No Crooked Death: Coatesville, Pennsylvania and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker (Urbana, 1991); and Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser, Coatesville and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker: Death in a Pennsylvania Steel Town (Charleston, 2011) for a case study of a northern lynching, see Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser. Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in the United states South since Emancipation (ny, 1984), 306–10. The National Conscience, and the American Historian, ” ibid., 1221–53; and “Referees’ Reports: Edward L. Ayers, David W. Blight, George M. Frederickson, Robin D. G. Kelley, David Levering Lewis, and Steven M. Stowe, ” ibid., 1254–67 for profound generational shifts in southern historiography, especially in approaches to violence, gender, and race, see David Thelen, “What We See and Can’t See in the Past: An Introduction, ” Journal of American History, 83 (March 1997), 1217–20; Joel Williamson, “Wounds Not Scars: Lynching. Trudier Harris, Exorcising Blackness: Historical and lynching that is literary Burning Rituals (Bloomington, 1984). For the next interpretation of lynching, emphasizing battle and ritual, see Orlando Patterson, Rituals of Blood: The Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries (ny, 1998), 169–231.
George C. Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865–1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings” (Baton Rouge, 1990), 8–9, 11–13, 251. W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching into the brand brand New Southern: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930 (Urbana, 1993), 15. See additionally W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed., Under Sentence of Death: Lynching when you look at the Southern (Chapel Hill, 1997). Edward L. Ayers, The Promise of this brand brand New Southern: Life after Reconstruction (nyc, 1992), 156–57, 495–96n69. On white mob physical physical violence when you look at the context regarding the connection with African Americans when you look at the Jim Crow Southern, see Leon Litwack, difficulty at heart: Black Southerners within the chronilogical age of Jim Crow (ny, 1999). Stewart E. Tolnay and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: a review of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930 (Urbana, 1995), 99–100, 256–57.
For a work that includes study of nonsouthern areas and a quick but suggestive conversation of lynching physical violence prior to the Civil War, see Philip Dray, during the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Ebony America (nyc, 2002). Michael J. Pfeifer, harsh Justice: Lynching and United states Society, 1878–1946 (Urbana, 2004). On lynching plus the death penalty in postbellum Tennessee and Florida, see Margaret Vandiver, Lethal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions when you look at the Southern ( brand brand brand New Brunswick, 2006). On lynching into the Midwest additionally the western and its particular relationship to lynching that is southern see Michael J. Pfeifer, “Introduction, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence outside of the Southern, ed. Michael J. Pfeifer (Urbana, 2013), 1–12. For a cross-regional analysis of mob physical violence and money punishment in U.S. History, see Howard W. Allen, Jerome M. Clubb, and Vincent A. Lacey, Race, Class, together with Death Penalty: Capital Punishment in United states History (Albany, 2008).
William D. Carrigan, The creating of the Lynching customs: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836–1916 (Urbana, 2004), 12–15. Michael J. Pfeifer, The Roots of harsh Justice: Origins of American Lynching (Urbana, 2011). For social analysis of authorities torture of African People in america into the thick white girls porn mid-twentieth-century South, see Silvan Niedermeier, “Violence, Visibility, therefore the research of Police Torture when you look at the United states South, 1940–1955, ” in Violence and Visibility in Modern History, ed. Jurgen Martschukat and Silvan Niedermeier (nyc, 2013), 91–92.
The absolute most accurate count available is nearly 2,500 African Us citizens were murdered by lynch mobs from 1882 through 1930 in Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Alabama, sc, Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, and new york.
See Tolnay and Beck, Festival of Violence, ix. This tally excludes six states which were wholly or partly southern inside their historic development. Tuskegee Institute information enumerates an overall total of 793 lynching victims between 1882 and 1968 in 6 states in the southern periphery: Virginia, western Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Texas. See Zagrando, naacp Crusade against Lynching, 4. Ken Gonzales-Day, Lynching into the western: 1850–1935 (Durham, N.C., 2006).